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Different types of clocks

Clocks are considered to be essential in households all over the world and are very common due to their practical usage. In this article, we will touch on the history of clocks as well as diversifying them by some characteristics.

Egyptians were the first to invent a timekeeping device using water movement to measure time. Albeit inaccurate, that was a revolutionary invention at the time. Later on, Saxons invented candle clocks, dividing candles into several segments that would indicate time passage after burning out. The first instance of mechanical clocks dates back to middle age, specifically to churches in Europe. Makers of those clocks are unknown but it is considered that they were first invented in the 14th century. Moving forward, clocks were still highly inaccurate until the pendulum introduction in the later years of the 17th century. During the years that followed, many iterations of clocks were made such as the cuckoo clocks, grandfather clocks and many more. By the mid-1800s, almost every town in Britain had its own clock built upon a tower or a tall building. Further technological development impacted clocks as well, with the invention of quartz oscillators and atomic clocks that are still used to this day.

Types of Clocks

There are 13 types of clocks that see modern usage and in the following section, we will dissect every one of them.

There are many styles and types of clocks and in this segment, we will individually analyze every one of them.

Firstly, there is the standard wall clock, the most commonly used clock in almost every room. Oversized wall clocks are very unique in their usage and design, being commonly found in schools, eye-doctor offices or in very large rooms. Next up is the mantel and tabletop clock, which is very specific due to it’s very antique and traditional design. Moving forward we have maritime and weather station clocks, clocks that measure humidity and weather as well as time. Just as important as wall clocks are alarm clocks, mostly used by people who want something that can efficiently wake them up in the morning. Grandfather clocks are the clocks that preserve the old-school design and are commonly passed from older to younger generations as a sign of family tradition. However, their exclusive design and size make them quite expensive. Next up are cuckoo clocks which are very entertaining to use because of their mechanic in which a tiny bird figure pops out with every passing hour. Outdoor clocks are placed in the street so passengers can be aware of the time while floor clocks are mounted clocks that rarely see usage nowadays. Pendulum clocks and anniversary clocks are very unique because they use the “tick-tock” mechanism and are still used as a decoration. Sun clocks and water clocks are devices that have been used in the past to calculate time but are obsolete due to their impracticability.

Unique Features

Every clock has unique features that make it special, we will discuss them in the following section.

Digital clocks display their time digitally while analog clocks use a traditional clock dial. Additionally, large display clocks are digital clocks that have a significantly larger display. Adopting the traditional style is the roman numeral clock, using roman numbers instead of Arabic ones. Calendar clocks display the day and date and time while musical and auditory clocks signal the time of day with a certain musical composition. Automatic Chime Shutoff clocks are traditional alarm clocks that use pendulums and cuckoo calls to signal the time. Battery-powered clocks use batteries in order to function while radio clocks use longwave radio transmitted codes. Light sensor clocks are a variation of alarm clocks that react and alarm us when they are exposed to daylight.

Shape and Mechanism

Clocks can be categorized by shape and mechanism as well

When we categorize them by shape, clocks can be round, rectangle and square, with round clocks being the most common ones as most wall clocks are round-shaped. Novelty clocks include a certain image or a specific design which brings more life to an ordinary-shaped clock. Clocks can be divided by mechanism as well, with atomic clocks being the most precise ones, using electromagnetic signals to measure time. Mechanical clocks use oscillating mechanisms and gears while quartz movement clocks use quartz crystals as their main mechanism. Finally, we have electric clocks that are simply powered by electrical wires.

Hopefully, you have learned something about clocks, as they are truly one of the most useful and unique devices that surround us.

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How To Restore Cast Iron Pans

I love cooking on cast iron pans. They are my favorite pans to cook on and so easy to care for once you have learned how. One thing I love to do is restore cast iron pans. I joy the feeling I get in seeing a cast iron piece restored and usable once again. Most of the cast iron cookware I have, I rescued from being thrown out because they were badly rusted.

Most people have learned how to care for their cast iron pans from their parents or grandparents. Everyone has their own method for cleaning and caring for cast iron pans. Sometimes your cast iron pan gets rusty for some reason. This could happen from improper cleaning or because it was in storage and somehow got wet. Regardless of how it happened, most of the time, the pan is still salvageable.

There are multiple ways to restore a cast iron pan. Choose the one that suits your needs depending on the amount of rust on the pan.

Let’s start with the easiest method. This one is a good one to use if your pan just has a small amount of rust on it.

  1. If your pan only has light rust on it, you can use fine steel wool to remove the rust. Scour the pan until the area returns to raw cast iron.
  2. Next, wash the pan with warm water and a mild soap. Feel free to use a bristle brush or a mesh sponge it needed.
  3. Be sure to immediately dry the pan with a clean dishtowel or a paper towel.
  4. Then cover the pan completely with vegetable oil. Remember to cover the bottom and the handle!
  5. Place the cast iron upside down on the top rack of your oven. It is recommended that you place a sheet of aluminum foil or a foil-lined baking sheet on the bottom rack to catch any oil drips. Heat the cast iron for one hour at 350 degrees.
  6. Remove the cast iron pan and let it cool. Your pan is ready to be used now!

 

For more severe cases of damaged cast iron try the following:

 

First Way:

  1. Place pan in a wood stove while it is burning hot for a few hours.
  2. Use a wire brush and scrape off any rust or crud that has loosened on it.
  3. Soak the pan in a solution of 50/50 vinegar and water for 1 to 6 hours depending on how bad the rust is.
  4. Use fine steel wool to remove anything that is still remaining.
  5. Next, wash the pan with warm water and a mild soap. Feel free to use a bristle brush or a mesh sponge it needed.
  6. Be sure to immediately dry the pan with a clean dishtowel or a paper towel.
  7. Then cover the pan completely with vegetable oil. Remember to cover the bottom and the handle!
  8. Place the cast iron upside down on the top rack of your oven. It is recommended that you place a sheet of aluminum foil or a foil-lined baking sheet on the bottom rack to catch any oil drips. Heat the cast iron for one hour at 350 degrees.
  9. Remove the cast iron pan and let it cool. Your pan is ready to be used now!

Second Way:

  1. Place the pan in the oven and run it through a self-clean cycle. This will burn anything, not metal off of it and may loosen any rust. (Please be aware that the pan may crack at this stage, if it does, then it is trash. If it cracked here, it was bound to crack some other time, and you should consider yourself lucky that it didn’t do it while you were cooking.)
  2. Next, a quick bath in phosphoric acid will deal with your rust problem. Not sure what phosphoric acid is? Coca Cola has sufficient phosphoric acid in it to get the job done. Phosphoric acid reacts with Iron Oxide (rust) to create Ferric Phosphate, which isn’t dangerous at all and will wipe off the surface with gentle cleaning.
  3. If there is anything remaining, a light scouring with steel wool should get you resolved.
  4. If your surface is uneven, you may have to use something a bit coarser to get things mostly even. You don’t need perfection. The seasoning will fix some of the problems.
  5. Gentle cleaning with soap and water and you’re nearly ready to season. (Dry the pan well before the next step. I like a few minutes on a burner to heat the pan dry and then let it cool down until you can handle it)
  6. By the time you are done with this, you’ll have a clean piece of cast iron that is badly in need of seasoning. Season the pan well, you may want to do it a second time to be on the safe side

Last way:

  1. Take the piece to a machine shop to have it sandblasted and restored to raw cast iron.
  2. Then season it immediately.

 

As you can see, there are many ways to restore a cast iron pan. Some are easier than others.